The Mating Ritual of Leopards

An act not many individuals get to witness in the wild due to these cats being very shy and elusive by nature, but an act I have been fortunate enough to witness several times. It’s all very good and well reading in a book that a male and a female will come together and mate roughly every 15 minutes during a period of 5 days but living in the bush I was reminded on a regular basis that you cannot always just accept what the book says. After all, this is nature and we all know that anything can happen in nature and there is always an exception to the rules…

Yes, we can go with what the books tell us and majority of the time it is pretty much spot on, but as I mentioned there are always exceptions.

Spending every day out in the field and witnessing animal behavior firsthand was what I loved about being a fulltime guide. I’d often get to see and experience things that could not be found in any book.

Without getting too carried away I want to talk about the mating rituals of leopards, how it works and everything in between.

In humans, females produce an egg every 28 days. If it is not fertilised, the egg and the lining of the uterus will be discarded. This is not the case in leopards.

It takes up a lot of energy for an animal to produce something that is not used and for this reason the female leopard requires stimulus in order to start the ovulation process.

This all takes place when the female leopard’s hormone levels rise enough for her to produce eggs in a process called oestrus.

Once she is in oestrus, she will go about her daily business hunting and marking territory, the only difference is she may scent mark more frequently leaving a trace of her availability to mate wherever she urinates. This is left for the dominant male/males in the area to test on their patrol. The male leopard rubs this scent along the Jacobson’s organ, situated in the mouth, which will then tell him where the female is at and if she is ready to mate.

 In order to stimulate the female to ovulate male leopard have barbs on their penises which dig into the female but these barbs make retracting the penis painful for the female which causes her lash out at the male.

The Mating ritual of Leopards

She will continue to produce eggs during the mating ritual and as a male leopard’s sperm is weak he will need to mate with the female often to ensure that fertilization of the eggs takes place.

The Mating ritual of Leopards

The Mating ritual of Leopards

Based on what books tell us, they mate roughly a total of 250 times over a period of five days but from first-hand experience and as mentioned before, there are always those few exceptions. I have personally seen a leopardess mate for the full duration of 13 days. Now you may be wondering why this happened. Well, this female’s territory was positioned over three different dominant male’s territories and to ensure the safety and survival of her cubs she had to mate with all three males. In doing this, when she had a new litter, each male believed they were the father and did not want to harm the cubs.

You can imagine how difficult this must have been for her and just goes to show how smart animals are and to what length they will go to for their young.

Until next time,


The Life of a Leopard

Learn all about the incredibly elusive leopard in this blog. The beauty about wildlife is that there is so much that we don't know, so much that we still need to research and even then, nature will always surprise us. Take a look at this blog and get a better understanding about the life of a leopard.

8 thoughts on “The Mating Ritual of Leopards

  1. Martha Myers


    Hi Trevor – excellent post. But the more I thought about the length of the process, I began to wonder what, if any, hunting activity goes on during these 5 to 13 days?

    • Trevor McCall-Peat

      Hi Martha,

      Really appreciate the comment. They are opportunistic hunters, this means that even during mating, if an opportunity comes to hunt they will try. Being solitary animals, if they do make a kill they will only feed one at a time and often the male dominates the food an may not give the female a chance to feed.
      I hope this answers your question

  2. Mandeep & Dhruti


    Must be such a phenomenal experience to witness this in real. As elusive as they are, such sightings make it all the more special

    • Trevor McCall-Peat

      Hi Mandeep and Dhruti,

      Thank you for your comment, I couldn’t agree more! Any time you get to spend with these cats is always special

  3. Donna Hanssen


    Great pics and great explanation! THANKS – need more of you.

    • Trevor McCall-Peat

      Hi Donna,

      Thank you so much for your comment and for reading my blog, I really appreciate it.

  4. Akash Arun kanchankoti


    Really great there’s something different beyond the thinking of human in animals explanation about the information I think this process is equally followed by other cat family

  5. Trevor McCall-Peat


    Hi Akash,

    Thank you so much for taking the time to read through the blog and I hope it gives you a better understanding into these incredible animals and I have no doubt it applies to other cats too.

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